Infertility is a disease of the male or female reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sex.
Infertility affects millions of people of reproductive age worldwide and has an impact on their families and communities.
In the male reproductive system, infertility is most commonly caused by problems in the ejection of semen absence or low levels of sperm, or abnormal shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm.
In the female reproductive system, infertility may be caused by a range of abnormalities of the ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and the endocrine system, among others.
Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility is when a pregnancy has never been achieved by a person, and secondary infertility is when at least one prior pregnancy has been achieved.
Causes of female Infertility
Problems with the uterus
Problems with the fallopian tubes
Problems with ovulation
Problems with egg number and quality
Who is at risk for female infertility?
Hormone issue that prevents ovulation.
Abnormal menstrual cycle.
Structural problems (problems with the fallopian tubes, uterus or ovaries).
DES syndrome (DES is a medication that was given to women to prevent complications in pregnancy like premature birth or miscarriage. However, this medication has caused infertility in some of the children of mothers who took DES.).
A past ectopic (tubal) pregnancy.
Fertility Test and Treatment:
Ovulation testing and Sonography
Medications and counselling to treat problems with erections or ejaculation.
Causes of Male Infertility
Inability to produce sperm cells.
The production of low- or poor-quality sperm.
Sperm that cannot live long enough to fertilize the
Unhealthy habits: Substance use, including alcohol, smoking and drugs.